We are committed to reducing our adverse effect on the environment. Therefore, VOPO has calculated the emissions from air, land & sea travel to offset them by supporting projects that have a positive social and environmental impact.

What is Offsetting?

Even though current forms of transport can be incredibly convenient and it allows us to visit some of the world's most remote and beautiful places, it is also responsible for releasing greenhouse gases. Proven to have negative effects on the health of humans and the natural environment.

Because of this, we have calculated the fuel emissions for each route and vessel taken during the expedition in an attempt to equalise our impact. The projects we support help empower and create positive environmental and social change in the world.

All of the carbon offsetting projects are verified. Meaning, they meet strict international standards that certify the validity of the projects. These initiatives ultimately help mitigate the negative effects from travel.


Be a part of the expedition by choosing how we offset our emissions and equalise our impact. Learn about the offset projects below, then choose your favourite.

offset projects



1. electric garbage

Generating Sustainable Energy from Wastewater in Thailand

The Kornburi Wastewater Treatment Project is located at a tapioca starch processing plant in the Kornburi District of Northern Thailand. 

Biogas from wastewater is captured and burned to generate electricity and heat that powers the factory, preventing approximately 39,000 tonnes of greenhouse gases each year.



2. protect png forests

Preserving Lush Forests & Ancient Cultures in Papua New Guinea

The April Salumei Rainforest Conservation project area is home to 164 forest-dependent communities. These communities have strong cultural ties to the forest, and a common desire to protect their environment while developing basic local necessities like clean water, solar power and the establishment of sustainable productive activities. 

Supporting this project helps the communities to achieve these goals while protecting virgin tropical rainforests from commercial threats. 


3. river energy

Creating Dam-Free Hydro Power in Indonesia

This micro hydro power plant makes use of the natural flow of water to generate sustainable power for the island of Sulawesi, without the need for a retaining dam. 

The project utilises the natural fall of water between the upper Moaat lake and the lower Iloloy lake to generate low impact sustainable energy. The hydro plant has an installed capacity of 3 MW only, making it heavily dependent on additional funding from carbon revenues.


The calculations

Step 1

Mapping the routes: Once we knew our participant’s points of origin, we estimate the total travel distance for each type of transport and vessels. 

  1. Point of Origin - Manila (air)
  2. Manila - Bacalod (air)
  3. Bacalod - Bulata (land)
  4. Bulata - Danjugan Island (sea)
  5. Danjugan Island - Bulata (sea)
  6. Bulata - Dumaguete (land)
  7. Dumaguete - Manila (air)
  8. Manila to Point - Origin (air)

Step 2

Selecting the vessel types: Vessel types used on each route were selected. 

  • International flights: A320, A332 & A343 (average)
  • Domestic flights: A320, 32A, 738, 739, 772 (average)
  • Land transfer: Class I, Class II, Class III (average)
  • Sea transfer: Outrigger boat single cylinder diesel motor (local paraw)

Step 3

Calculating emissions: Once the total distance travelled is calculated and the type of vessel used selected, we then can calculate the emissions. We used different methodologies, depending on the type of travel.

Air travel

Methodology for estimation: United Nations specialized agency International Civil Aviation Organization Carbon Emissions Calculator (ICAO)

Overview: The ICAO has a methodology developed for estimating the amount of carbon emissions equivalent (CO2 e-) generated per passenger per flight, for use in carbon offsetting programmes.

The Process: The CO2 emission are calculated from the fuel burned by the aircraft serving a given route. The scheduled aircraft is identified from the scheduled flights database, then mapped into one of the 312 equivalent aircraft types existing in the aircraft fuel consumption database from the ICAO.

Using the trip distance, equivalent aircraft fuel consumption, passenger to seat load factor and passenger to freight load factor for the route group, and the number of Y-seats, the methodology calculates the CO2 associated to each passenger, as follows:

emissions per pax = 3.16 * (total fuel * pax-to-freight factor)/(number of y-seats * pax load factor)

Land travel

Methodology for estimation: European Commission Framework for CO2 emissions in light commercial vehicles (EC).

Overview: In an effort to confirm the feasibility of the 2020 target of 147 gco2/km to be the light commercial vehicle emissions standard, the EC carried out a series of assessments to understand the feasibility of such.

The Process: In the study mentioned above, the researchers measured the average CO2 emissions and vehicle footprint per vehicle segment for 2010 (and 2007) in grams of CO2 equivalent per kilometer travelled. At this point it is hard to know which type of van exactly we will use to mobilise the crew, therefore, we used the total average. The study uses 17 different kind of light vans from 17 different car manufacturers.

Every year the average the average carbon dioxide emissions intensity from new passenger and light commercial vehicles drops down. Meaning, on average vehicles are more fuel efficient as years go by. However, for the purpose of this assessment we used data from older vehicles given the remoteness of our expeditions and the potential availability of cars.

emissions per pax = (total distance travelled * average CO2 and vehicle footprint segment)/pax load factor

Sea travel

Methodology for estimation: This had to be a more rudimentary calculation. We used the average emissions from a single cylinder engine using diesel fuel. The Swedish Environmental Protection Agency methodology for calculating emissions from ships was used as support

Overview: Our local contacts told us that local paraw (outrigger) boats will be used as transport. These boats run on diesel as fuel for a single cylinder engine.

The Process: We got the Emissions Factor of diesel fuel from the National Greenhouse Accounts Factors (2016). Then we calculated the total distance, the amount of fuel required to make the trip and we used the Emissions Factor of diesel to estimated the emissions. Calculations where based on the CO2 equivalent emitted per litter of diesel consumed.

emissions per pax= {[total distance * fuel intensity (l/km)]*Emissions Factor diesel (gCO2 e-/liter)}/pax load factor


Still keen to learn more?